Thursday, May 28, 2020

Who Is Baby Boomer - Free Essay Example

Baby boomer is a person who was born between 1946 and 1964. The origin of the name baby boomers is due to the immense number of births that were happening. In the beginning of the boom, 3.4 million infants born in the U.S.. The numbers kept increasing to nearly 4 million infants in between years 1953 and 1964. In the end of 1964, over the course of a 22-year period, about 76.4 million infants were brought into existence. The baby boomers are the 2nd biggest generational group in the history of the U.S. and they will continue to have a significant mark on the U.S..   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the year 1964, the Civil Rights Act was passed in the U.S.A. This put an end to being segregated from areas or places based on race, color, religion, and sex. The passing of this law has done so much for all people that they can actually talk and it not turned into some incident or death. I believe this did a lot more for blacks than any race due to the fact that they couldnt be turned away because of the color of their skin. After years of struggle and setbacks, they could finally attempt to live in peace.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated. He was born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1925. He had lost his father in 1931 as he was murdered by White Supremacists. He became a man that could help stop the deaths of blacks that were being killed. Malcolm was great at his job, he steadily gained followers and he was becoming more and more influential as time went on. Until February 21st 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity (which was founded in 1964) in Washington Heights. He was shot to death and was barely even able to experience the world with the Civil Rights Act in play.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan was beginning. There was a grand total of 93 nations participating. The grand total of participants was 5,151. The number of men was 4,473 and women was 678. Like many Olympics before the men have always been the majority. This was the debut of other events such as sumo wrestling and judo matches. New Olympic records were set in 27 of the 36 events in the track-and-field competition. The end result of this Olympics was the U.S. coming out on top with the most number of gold medals that being 36.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Winter Olympics of 1980 in Lake Placid for the second time is about to commence. In this Olympics only 37 nations participated and only a little over 1000 contestants. The men were the majority with 840 with the women at only 232. This is the age of television and rising numbers of viewers, that Lake Placid wasnt prepped entirely for this event. The U.S. ice hockey team defeated the powerful Soviets, and gained the gold. The big winners of the Winter Olympics were the Soviet Union with a total of 10 gold medallions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To conclude, the sports never cease to fail. The Olympics is such a popular event that everyone watches. It brings many nations and individuals together, to compete and have a good time. The Baby Boomer generation was definitely booming with many insane events taking place. We are now about to move into the next generation and see how the Olympics and other things played out.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

USS Tennessee (BB-43) in World War II

The lead ship of the Tennessee-class of battleship, USS Tennessee (BB-43) was laid down shortly after the United States entry into World War I (1914-1918). The first class to take advantage of the lessons learned in the conflict, the battleship was not completed until two years after the fighting had ended. Entering the peacetime US Navy, Tennessee spent almost the entirety of its career in the Pacific. The battleship was moored at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, when the  Japanese attacked. Though struck by two bombs, it was not severely damaged and soon joined in operations against the Japanese. Withdrawn in August 1942, Tennessee underwent an eight-month modernization which radically changed the appearance of the battleship and left it better equipped to deal with the challenges presented by World War II (1939-1945) naval warfare. Rejoining the fleet in mid-1943, it took part in the Allies island-hopping campaign across the Pacific and played a role in the Battle of the Surigao Strait. Despite sustaining a kamikaze hit in April 1945, Tennessee remained an active participant in operations through the end of the conflict in August. Design The ninth  class  of dreadnought battleship  (South Carolina, Delaware, Florida,  Wyoming,  New York, Nevada, Pennsylvania,  and  New Mexico) designed for the US Navy, the  Tennessee-class was intended to be an improved version of the preceding  New Mexico-class. The fourth class  to follow the Standard-type concept, which called for ships  that possessed similar operational and tactical characteristics,  the  Tennessee-class was powered by  oil-fired boilers instead of coal and employed an  Ã¢â‚¬Å"all or nothing† armor scheme. This armor approach  called for key  areas of the vessel, such as magazines and engineering, to be heavily protected while less important spaces were left unarmored. Also, Standard-type battleships were required to have  a  minimum top speed of 21 knots and have a tactical turn radius of 700 yards or less.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Designed following the Battle of Jutland, the  Tennessee-class class was the first to take advantage of the lessons learned in the fighting. These included enhanced protection below the waterline as well as fire control systems for both the main and secondary batteries. These were mounted atop two large cage masts. As with the  New Mexicos, the new ships carried twelve 14 guns in four triple turrets and fourteen 5 guns. Unlike its predecessors, the main battery on the  Tennessee-class could elevate its guns to 30 degrees which increased the weapons range by 10,000 yards. Ordered on December 28, 1915, the new class consisted of two ships: USS  Tennessee  (BB-43) and USS  California  (BB-44). Construction Laid down at the New York Naval Shipyard on May 14, 1917, work on  Tennessee  moved forward while the US was engaged in World War I. On April 30, 1919, the new battleship slid down the ways with Helen Roberts, daughter of Tennessee Governor Albert H.Roberts, serving as sponsor. Pressing forward, the yard completed the ship and it entered commission on June 3, 1920 with Captain Richard H. Leigh in command. Finishing fitting out, the battleship ran trials in Long Island Sound that October. As part of this process, one of the ships electrical turbines exploded, injuring two members of the crew.    USS Tennessee  (BB-43) - Overview Nation:  United StatesType:  BattleshipShipyard:  New York Navy YardLaid Down:  May 14, 1917Launched:  April 30, 1919Commissioned:  June 3, 1920Fate:  Sold for scrap Specifications (as built) Displacement:  33,190  tonsLength:  624  ft.Beam:  97.3  ft.Draft:  31  ft.Propulsion:  Turbo-electric transmission  turning 4 propellersSpeed:  21  knotsComplement:  1,083  men Armament (as built) 12  Ãƒâ€" 14 in. gun (4  Ãƒâ€" 3)14 Ãâ€" 5 in. guns2 Ãâ€" 21 in. torpedo tubes Interwar Years   Following standardization trials at Guantanamo Bay in early 1921,  Tennessee  received orders to join the Pacific Fleet. Passing through the Panama Canal, the battleship arrived at San Pedro, CA on June 17. Operating from the West Coast, the battleship moved through annual cycles of peacetime training, maneuvers, and war games. In 1925,  Tennessee  and other battleships from the Pacific Fleet conducted a goodwill cruise to Australia and New Zealand. Four years later, the battleships anti-aircraft armament was enhanced. Following Fleet Problem XXI off Hawaii in 1940,  Tennessee and the Pacific Fleet received orders to shift their base to Pearl Harbor due to increasing tensions with Japan.    World War II Begins On the morning of December 7, 1941,  Tennessee  was moored inside of USS  West Virginia  (BB-48)  along Battleship Row. When the Japanese attacked, Tennessees crew manned the ships anti-aircraft guns but were unable to prevent two bombs from hitting the ship. Additional damage was sustained by flying debris when USS  Arizona  (BB-39) exploded. Trapped by the sunken  West Virginia  for ten days after the attack,  Tennessee  finally moved free and was sent to the West Coast for repairs. Entering Puget Sound Navy Yard, the battleship received needed repairs, additions to its anti-aircraft battery, and new search and fire control radars. Return to Action Departing the yard on February 26, 1942,  Tennessee  conducted training exercises along the West Coast and then patrolled the Pacific. Though it was initially slated to support the landings on  Guadalcanal in early August, its slow speed and high fuel consumption prevented it from joining the invasion force. Instead, Tennessee  returned to Puget Sound for a major modernization program. This saw the battleships superstructure razed and rebuilt, enhancements to its power plant, the trunking of its two funnels into one, additions to the anti-aircraft armament, and incorporation of anti-torpedo protection into the hull. Emerging on May 7, 1943,  Tennessees  appearance was radically changed. Ordered to the Aleutians later that month, the battleship provided gunfire support for landings there. Island Hopping Steaming south that fall, Tennessees guns aided US Marines during the invasion of Tarawa in late November. Following training off California, the battleship returned to action on January 31, 1944, when it opened fired on Kwajalein and then remained offshore to support the landings. With the capture of the island,  Tennessee  rendezvoused USS  New Mexico  (BB-40), USS  Mississippi  (BB-41), and USS  Idaho  (BB-42)  in March to attack targets in the Bismarck Islands. After rehearsals in Hawaiian waters,  Tennessee  joined the invasion force for the Marianas in June. Arriving off Saipan, it struck targets ashore and later covered the landings. In the course of the fighting, the battleship took three hits from Japanese shore batteries which killed 8 and wounded 26. Withdrawing for repairs on June 22, it quickly returned to the area to aid in the invasion of Guam the next month. On September 12,  Tennessee aided Allied operations against Peleliu by attacking the island of Angaur to the south. The following month, the battleship fired in support of General Douglas MacArthurs landings on Leyte in the Philippines. Five days later, on October 25, Tennessee  formed part of Rear Admiral  Jesse Oldendorfs line at the Battle of Surigao Strait. In the fighting, the American battleships inflicted a severe defeat on the enemy as part of the larger Battle of Leyte Gulf. In the wake of the fighting,  Tennessee  returned to Puget Sound for a routine refit. Final Actions Re-entering  the fighting in early 1945,  Tennessee joined Rear Admiral W.H.P. Blandys Iwo Jima bombardment force. Reaching the island, it opened fire on February 16 in an effort to weaken the Japanese defenses. Supporting the landings  three days later, the battleship remained offshore until March 7 when it sailed for Ulithi. There briefly, Tennessee  then moved to take part in the Battle of Okinawa. Tasked with striking targets ashore, the battleship also was routinely threatened by kamikaze attacks. On April 12,  Tennessee  was hit by a kamikaze that killed 23 and wounded 107. Making emergency repairs, the battleship remained off the island until May 1. Steaming to Ulithi, it received permanent repairs.    Arriving back at Okinawa on June 9,  Tennessee  supported the final drives to eliminate Japanese resistance ashore. On June 23, the battleship became Oldendorfs flagship and commenced patrols in the Ryukyus and East China Sea. Raiding the Chinese coast, Tennessee  was operating off Shanghai when the war ended in August.   After covering the landing of occupation forces at Wakayama, Japan, the battleship touched at Yokosuka before returning to the United States via Singapore and the Cape of Good Hope. Arriving at Philadelphia, it began the process of moving into reserve status. Decommissioned on February 14, 1947, Tennessee  remained in reserve for twelve years until being sold for scrap on March 1, 1959.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The 44 Phonemic Sounds in English for Spelling

When supporting children in learning the sounds of the English language, remember to choose words that demonstrate all 44 word-sounds or phonemes. English contains 19 vowel sounds—5 short vowels, 6 long vowels, 3 diphthongs, 2 oo sounds, and 3 r-controlled vowel sounds—and 25 consonant sounds. The following lists provide sample words to use when teaching the sounds of the English language. You may choose to find more words to fill out word families or align with sight vocabulary lists such as a Dolch Word List. Your learners will benefit most from terms that are familiar to them or make sense in their life. The 5 Short Vowel Sounds The five short vowel sounds in English are a, e, i, o, and u. short a: and, as, and aftershort e: pen, hen, and lendshort i: it and inshort o: top and hopshort u: under and cup Remember that these sounds are not necessarily indicative of spelling. Note that the above words all contain the vowel whose sound they make but this is not always the case. A word might sound as if it contains a certain vowel that is not there. Examples of words whose short vowel sounds do not correspond with their spelling are busy and does. The 6 Long Vowel Sounds The six long vowel sounds in English are a, e, i, o, u, and oo. long a: make and takelong e: beet and feetlong i: tie and lielong o: coat and toelong u (pronounced yoo): music and cutelong oo: goo and droop Examples of words whose long vowel sounds do not correspond with their spelling are they, try, fruit, and few. The R-Controlled Vowel Sounds An r-controlled vowel is a vowel whose sound is influenced by the r that comes before it. The three r-controlled vowel sounds are ar, er, and or. ar: bark and darker: her, bird, and furor: fork, pork, and stork It is important that students pay close attention to the er sound in words because it can be created by an r-controlled e, i, or u. These vowels are all transformed into the same sound when an r is attached to the end of them. More examples of this include better, first, and turn. The 18 Consonant Sounds The letters c, q, and x are not denoted by unique phonemes because they are found in other sounds. The c sound is covered by k sounds in words like crust, crunch, and create and by s sounds in words like cereal, city, and cent (the c is found in the spelling of these words only but does not have its own phoneme). The q sound is found in kw words like backward and Kwanza. The x sound is found in ks words like kicks. b: bed and badk: cat and kickd: dog and dipf: fat and figg: got and girlh: has and himj: job and jokel: lid and lovem: mop and mathn: not and nicep: pan and playr: ran and rakes: sit and smilet: to and takev: van and vinew: water and wenty: yellow and yawnz: zipper and zap The Blends Blends are formed when two or three letters combine to create a distinct consonant-sound, often at the beginning of a word. In a blend, the sounds from each original letter are still heard, they are just blended quickly and smoothly together. The following are common examples of blends. bl: blue and blowcl: clap and closefl: fly and flipgl: glue and glovepl: play and pleasebr: brown and breakcr: cry and crustdr: dry and dragfr: fry and freezegr: great and groundpr: prize and pranktr: tree and trysk: skate and skysl: slip and slapsp: spot and speedst: street and stopsw: sweet and sweaterspr: spray and springstr: stripe and strap The 7 Digraph Sounds A digraph is formed when two consonants come together to create an entirely new sound that is distinctly different from the sounds of the letters independently. These can be found anywhere in a word but most often the beginning or end. Some examples of common digraphs are listed below. ch: chin and ouchsh: ship and pushth: thingth: thiswh: whenng: ringnk: rink Point out to your students that there are two sounds that th can make and be sure to provide plenty of examples. Diphthongs and Other Special Sounds A diphthong is essentially a digraph with vowels—it is formed when two vowels come together to create a new sound in a single syllable as the sound of the first vowel glides into the second. These are usually found in the middle of a word. See the list below for examples. oi: oil and toyow: owl and ouchey: rain Other special sounds include: short oo: took and pullaw: raw and haulzh: vision

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Globalization And The Global System - 1343 Words

Globalization one of the most controversial and widely recognized term, and is biggest threat to liberty in the 21st century. The consolidation of power and wealth into the hands of a few has absolutely no benefit, except of course to the power hungry CEO s of transnational’s looking to suck the life out of every nation they can exploit. Despite the propaganda from the global elite it s done nothing but destroy the middle class in United States and any other industrialized nation. It will eliminate more cultures and enslave more people than even the most ambitious tyrant from history. Globalization is uneven and incomplete because the pace of globalization varies over time, and not all societies are fully integrated into the global†¦show more content†¦It is clear that the unchecked growth of financial capitalism is not the only outcome of today’s crisis and that regulations are necessary at all levels to meet the challenges of globalization. Increasing internationalization of the three circuits of capital is driving globalization: International trade (the global marketplace), international finance (the global casino) and international production (the global assembly-line), and the concomitant, increasing international concentration and centralization of capital. This characteristic of contemporary globalization, which distinguishes it from previous periods of international economic integration, has been a major contributor to the break-up of the institutional pillars of the postwar productive order, and is propelling further globalization. More than one billion people live in extreme poverty, which is defined by the World Bank as subsisting on less than one dollar a day. In 2001, fully half of the developing world lived on less than two dollars a day. Yet poverty rates are much lower today than twenty years ago. In the last two decades, the percentage of the developing world living in extreme poverty has been cut in half. While poverty rates were falling, developing countries became increasingly integrated into the world trading system. Poor countries have slashed protective tariff s and increased their participation in world trade. If we use the share of exports in gross domestic

The Winner Of The War Of 1812 Essay - 1633 Words

Riley Walburger Mrs. Miller English 12, 5th hour September 23, 2016 The Winner of the War of 1812 There are many conflicting viewpoints of the war of 1812. Both sides claim it as a victory but only one side can win a war. The war of 1812 isn’t a very well known war throughout the world but it has been a very important one to the countries and people involved. The war was an issue of the U.S. wanting land and seeing an opportunity to have North American Britain while Britain was at war with Napoleon. The U.S. also wanted to trade with everybody as Great Britain was stopping the U.S. from trading with enemies in Europe such as Napoleon. The United States and Great Britain both views The War of 1812 as a victory but in reality the United States did not achieve their goals of the war and Great Britain obtained almost all of their goals with less losses. The two views of the War of 1812 conflict with each other in many ways. The British has one view on this war. They have the belief that they stopped the Americans from trading with France during th e Napoleonic wars. They set up a blockade with only about fifteen percent of their navy. Donald R. Hickey said â€Å"The blockade devastated the American economy. Between 1811 and 1814, the value of exports and imports fell from $114 million to $20 million, while custom rates used to finance the war were more than halved from $13 million to $6 million. Many American merchant vessels did not risk leaving port.† The Royal Navy did a greatShow MoreRelatedWar of 18121643 Words   |  7 PagesThe War of 1812 was a war between Britain and the United States fought primarily in Upper Canada. It had many causes, few which involved British North America. The results of the war include the fact that there was no clear winner or loser among them. The only real losers in the situation were the Natives in the region. They were driven out of their lands and customs. 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The Texas Revolution was the revolt of Texans towards the Mexico for their independence. The Louisiana Purchase was when Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon, which doubled America’s size. The Mexicana American War when the U. S attacked the Mexicans for New Mexico and California. The Manifest Destiny was the belief that America would spread â€Å"from sea to shining sea.† The Gadsden Purchase was when Mexico sold New Mexico and Arizona for $10 million to America. FloridaRead More2002 APUSH DBQ1468 Words   |  6 Pages2002 AP DBQ In the years following the War of 1812, the â€Å"Era of Good Feelings† evolved between the years 1815 and 1825. In the first half of this period, there was a strong sense of nationalism throughout the United States. However, political changes and economic differences between the states warped this nationalism into the sectionalism that divided the country into north, south and west regions. 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Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury 5.Henry Knox- Secretary of War Famous Farewell Address- warned America to steer clear of permanentRead MoreHenry Clay Essay1302 Words   |  6 PagesSpeaker a year later in 1809. Henry Clay was elected again to the Senate to fill the vacancy left when Buckner Thruston resigned on January 14 1810. He Served there until his successful bid for a seat in the United States House of Representatives in 1812 as a Democratic Republican. On the first day of the session 34 year old clay was selected as the Speaker of the House of Representatives, a feat that has never before or since been accomplished.(1) During the next 14 years he was elected to the House

Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman free essay sample

More than just Objects In Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman, Eca de Quieroz, the author, offers his insight on how gender roles operate within the relationship between men and women. In each of the relationships depicted by Quieroz, the common and underlying theme revolves around the tendency of men to engage in romantic relationships, solely on the basis of a woman’s aesthetic beauty. Furthermore, by engaging in these types of superficial relationships, men are ultimately entailed to face harsh repercussions. By reiterating this theme in each of his stories, Quieroz manifests the notion that men have been naturally trained to objectify women. By judging women exclusively on their exterior features, rather than on their interior values, men are not regarding women as human beings, but rather as inanimate objects. By ignoring the characteristics of women, men are also prone to become victims of the negative traits in women. Lastly, Quieroz purports that in order to expunge this ignorant habit of objectifying women, men must endure a shocking, yet enlightening, experience in which they are exposed to and victimized by the negative characteristics of women. We will write a custom essay sample on Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Quieroz’s Idiosyncrasies of a Young Blonde Woman, Macario objectifies Luisa by being infatuated with her exterior beauty of Luisa. The first time Macario glimpsed Luisa was when he, from his balcony, noticed a â€Å"blonde girl† emerging from the window of the opposite building. Macario was immediately infatuated with her ethereal beauty and thought, â€Å"the whiteness of her skin had something of the transparency of old porcelain and her profile had a pure line to it† [p. 92]. While Macario had barely glimpsed Luisa, â€Å"within five days he was mad about her† [p. 93] and she was constantly occupying his thoughts. When Macario finally converses with Luisa at a gathering, he is certain â€Å"they are destined for marriage† [p. 97]. By thinking that they were destined to be married, it is evident that Luisa is just another object he yearns to obtain. Because Macario has barely conversed with Luisa and is not acquainted to her personality, it is evident that he bases his emotions solely off Luisa’s elegant appearance. For that reason, it is explicit that Macario is objectifying Luisa. Because Macario objectifies Luisa and commences their relationship on the basis of appearance, absolutely ignoring her kleptomaniac personality, he ends up a victim of her swindling nature. The first evidence, albeit slight, of Luisa’s kleptomania comes when Uncle Francisco remarks â€Å"12,000 reis with of scarves; put it on my bill† [p. 95] in response to â€Å"the disappearance of a package of Indian scarves† [p. 5]. Though there is no direct link to Luisa, Quiroz clearly implies Luisa was the thief, as she asked to see them earlier. Macario does not even stop to consider that Luisa was the thief because he is so obsessed with her beauty. As a result, his uncle’s shop loses 12,000 reis. The second theft by Luisa affects Macario in a much greater fashion. One night, while socializing with Luisa and others, Macario commences spinning his new gold coin worth around 7,000 reis. After a wild spin, â€Å"the coin rolled to the edge of the table, fell to one side of Luisa’s lap and disappeared, with no clink of metal on the wood as it fell to the floor† [p. 00]. This description coupled with the fact that earlier Luisa had smiled as she â€Å"watched it spin and spin† [p. 100], makes it explicit that Luisa was the thief. Nevertheless, Macario does not even consider the notion of accusing Luisa because he thinks of her as an object. Macario is only cognizant of her external beauty, and absolutely disregards her character and personality. This objectification leads to Macario losing 7,000 reis. In both situations, because Macario ignores and disregards Luisa’s personality, he ends up a victim of Luisa’s kleptomaniac personality. Even though Macario has already twice been victimized by Luisa’s kleptomania, it takes a truly shocking, horrific and painful theft for Macario to become cognizant of Luisa’s negative traits and ultimately stop objectifying her. While the couple is shopping for a wedding ring, Luisa slyly steals an expensive diamond ring from the counter. As Macario and Luisa are leaving the store, the assistant, who witnessed Luisa pilfer the ring, accuses, â€Å"the lady took the ring from the counter† [p. 112]. Mortified, Luisa eventually relents and admits to the crime. Humiliated, Macario apologizes for Luisa’s actions and purchases the ring. Judging women solely on their exterior beauty rather than their character and personality leads to brutal ramifications. By shunning and ignoring women’s personalities, men render themselves vulnerable to becoming the victim of women’s negative traits. Moreover, in order for men to overcome their innate habit of objectifying women, they must be horrified by the negative traits of women. In all, Quieroz criticizes the objectification of women and suggests that treating women as if they are human beings rather than lifeless objects would ultimately be advantageous for men.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Qualitative and Quantitative Design Methods †

Queston: Discuss about the Qualitative and Quantitative Design Methods. Answer: Introduction: Ontology and Epistemology are intrinsic to research methodology. Ontology is the foundation of knowledge. Research paradigm is constructed by the integration of ontology and epistemology. The characteristics of research paradigm are ontology management, epistemology and methodology. The ontology of positivist knowledge is that reality is present out there, it can be understood through the external intervention by the scientist (Ritchie et al. 2013). Result is understood as the outcome of current convention. Ontology raises question about reality and what is reality. Ontology emphasizes on what is knowledge and in what ways we perceive knowledge. This enables us to understand the quintessence of knowledge. A clear understanding regarding the philosophy of knowledge will guide the researcher to engage in better research. The ontological position of the positivists is that there is a single reality that is out there and the task of the researcher is to go out there and discover the real ity. The understanding of the positivist ontological position is that there is a fixed reality. This ontology informs the researcher to deploy quantitative research methods that facilitates measurement and quantification of the reality. Another ontological position is that of the constructivists or the interpretivists. Their understanding about knowledge is that there is no single reality. There are multiple realities. Reality is contingent about the perception of different individuals based on their distinctive social location. Since reality is multiple, the approach towards understanding the reality is to explore the lived experiences of individuals, groups, communities and sects. Since experiences of different individuals cannot be quantified, measured on generalized to a larger sample population, therefore qualitative research methods comprising of qualitative interviewing, in-depth and intensive interviews, oral history and participant observation are some of the pertinent tech niques deployed for the constructivist approach of research. The ontological framework of critical social science research is that there is social construction of reality and that the construction of reality is subject to internal reflection. This ontological position influences the a critical and reflective orientation towards social issues. Therefore, Marxist method and feminist method are the key features of this kind of position. According to critical social science research, social realities are manifestation of the power structure and embedded in hierarchical relationship (Lewis 2015). The appropriate methods for this kind of approach is discourse analysis that engages in a perusal of the discourse itself and highlights the power that is manifested through discourse analysis, ethnography and action design research. Action design research is suitable for the temperament of this ontological position as it emphasizes on identifying the issues and seeking solutions management to the problem with the motive of social transformation or praxis. The term epistemology refers to the ways one can know the reality or knowledge and also explains the relationship between the knower and the phenomenon the person wants to know. It is ontology that informs the epistemological premise. Epistemology also emphasizes on the process of knowing and guides about future methods that can be adopted by the researchers. For example, the epistemological tenet of constructivism is subjective understanding of knowledge. According to this philosophy, reality needs to be interpreted with the aim of understanding the meanings imbued to the social action of individuals or groups. Theory, methodology and research design Ontology and epistemology determines guides and informs theory. Theory informs the methodological framework to be adopted for research and the methodical framework in turn gives shape to the research design. In social science research, there are three key ingredients, the first step is the construction of theory followed by the collection of data and followed by the designing of the research. The term theory connotes a testable proposition that have emerged either through the nomothetic (that is based on generalisable scientific laws) or the idiographic (that emphasizes on the subjective interpretation of reality) approach. A theory either emerges through the inductive of the deductive method. According to the deductionist approach, a researcher commences the research with a hypothesis based on the on intensive review of literature on the issue that is being studied. Then, the researcher goes into the field and deploys the survey or the questionnaire method to find the data. The aim of the researcher is to prove the hypothesis valid or invalid (Hughes and Sharrock 2016). The deductionists are inspired from the positivist foundation and tries to provide an objective account of reality. On the other hand, in the inductionist approach the researcher commences with broad research question and enters the field. During the course of the fieldwork and post the data collection, there will emerge the theory. This is also known as the grounded theory. Grounded theory makes use of qualitative research methodology. The foundation of qualitative research is that individuals experiences cannot be quantified and the researcher needs to adopt verstehen (empathetic understanding). This emphasizes that the researcher to understand the participants should put themselves in the shoes of the participant. This would facilitate in having a deeper and acuminous insight into the lifeworld of the individual. Methodology refers to the system that constitutes of a collection of methods th at are utilized by the researcher in the pursuit of their approach towards the research. It is important to understand that research is never pursued without reference to other studies. The ways and patterns in which the social scientist pursues the researcher is situated in the broader context of the paradigm (Neuman 2014). The selection of appropriate research design emerges from the epistemological position of the researcher and the ways the researcher is seeking to understand the given issue. There are two primary research designs. One is the quantitative research design and the other is the qualitative research. The specifics of qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approach to research As has been discussed in the previous journals ontology informs epistemology that in turn informs the methodology and that in turn influences the methods. Qualitative research design is premised on the understanding of interpretivism or constructivism or critical social science research (Glaser and Strauss 2017). In quantitative research design, the aim of the researcher is to measure the through the use of numbers. Quantitative research design entails grasping the objective reality, therefore estimation is done quantification of data. A key advantage of quantitative research is the precision and there is no ambiguity. The data generated from the quantitative research can be generalisable to a larger sample population. Some of the common methods in quantitative research are survey and structured interview. A survey involves studying a particular phenomenon through the use of questionnaire that comprises of both open-ended nad close-ended questions. A questionnaire with too many open- ended questions would make it difficult to code and quantify. A structured interview comprises of a set of questions pre-decided by the interviewer and is not subject to change or modification during the course of the interview. Survey is helpful in examining the number of people and their relation to the particular phenomenon. However, quantitative research has limitation in terms grasping the varied experiences of individuals. In that context, qualitative research is helpful. The data generated from qualitative research is not meant to be generalisable. It uses oral history, in-depth interview, qualitative interviewing, focussed group discussion, unstructured interviews among others that are considered to be compatible for the essence of the research. In case of quantitative method probability, sampling technique is adopted whereas in case of qualitative research non-probability sampling technique is considered to be befitting. Apart from these two research methods there is someth ing called mixed methods. Mixed methods are also known as triangulation. Mixed method approach involves the deployment of both qualitative and quantitative research method (Hussein 2015). For example if a researcher is planning to conduct a study to understand the effect of ethnic violence on a community, then the methods of oral history, unstructured interview, archive analysis and survey all can be employed together to have a better understanding of the phenomenon. In case of a research that aims to understand the relationship between drug abuse and youth, the a quantitative research comprising of large scale cross-sectional research design and survey would be useful. In case a researcher is interested to understand the children of sex-workers and stigma in their life, then qualitative research methods comprising of qualitative interviewing and participant observation would be the most suitable method. Quantification would not be possible in such kind of situation as it will insen sitive and uncouth conduct a structured interview on their lives. Participant observation will enable the researcher to understand the trials and tribulations of the participants and the observation from the field will enrich the data. References Glaser, B.G. and Strauss, A.L., 2017.Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Routledge. Hughes, J.A. and Sharrock, W.W., 2016.The philosophy of social research. Routledge. Hussein, A., 2015. The use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined?.Journal of comparative social work,4(1). Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.Health promotion practice,16(4), pp.473-475. Neuman, L.W., 2014.Social research methods. Pearson Education Limited. Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C.M. and Ormston, R. eds., 2013.Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage.